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Generally, the implication is that the client performs a cryptographic key exchange with an entity and fails to authenticate that entity, thus allowing an attacker to look like a valid server. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. For example, a privileged program might check write privileges on a valid file, and the attacker can then replace that file with a symbolic link to the system password file. See also: Initialization vector , Salt. An authentication protocol that relies solely on symmetric cryptography, as opposed to public key cryptography. Model A model is a pattern, plan, representation especially in miniature , or description designed to show the main object or workings of an object, system, or concept.
It is not generally secure in the way that OMAC is, and is generally considered not worth using due to the existence of better alternatives. Ensuring that the compromise of a secret does not divulge information that could lead to the recovery of data protected prior to the compromise. Initialization vector A value used to initialize a cryptographic algorithm. Cyclic Redundancy Check. Big endian Refers to machines representing words most significant byte first. G H Hash function A function that maps a string of arbitrary length to a fixed size value in a deterministic manner.
Risk is the possibility of a negative or undesirable occurance. A type of public key cryptography that — due to smaller key sizes — tends to be more efficient that standard cryptography. Message integrity A message has integrity if it maintains the value it is supposed to maintain, as opposed to being modified on accident or as part of an attack.
Universal and near-universal hash functions are not cryptographically secure when used naively for message authentication but can be adapted to be secure for this purpose easily. A finalist in the AES competition; it is an evolution of the Blowfish cipher. Modern ciphers of merit are designed in such a way as to thwart such attacks. See also: Message Authentication Code.